unimelb ling30007 semantics social distancing vs physical distancing

1: Social distancing vs. physical distancing
This question is about two commonly used expressions during the ongoing pandemic: socialdistancing andphysical distancing. Althoughsocial distancing is a widely used term, some peoplehave argued that the term physical distancingis preferable. If you are not familiar with this issue, you may wish to read the following blog post (also included in the appendix at the end of this assignment): https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20200424.213070/full/.
Answer the following questions:
What is the senseand denotationof the terms social distancingand physical distancingas they are commonly used? What is the meaning relation(or sense relation), if any, between these terms? Do you think critics of the term social distancingwould regard these terms as having (or at least suggesting) a different meaning relation (or perhaps no meaning relation)? What would the sense and denotation of social distancing be, according to these critics?
Are the terms physical distancingand social distancingboth complex expressions(that is, are their meanings compositional)? Why or why not? (2 marks. Write around 100 words.) Note: for this question, you can assume the ordinary definitions/usages of these terms; however if you like you could also consider other possible meanings.
2. Epicentre
Consider the use of the word epicentrein examples like the following:
While the U.S. is Canadas most important trading partner, it is also the worlds epicentrefor coronavirus infections and deaths. (https://theconversation.com/closing-some-of-the-u-s-canada-land-border-crossings-could-help-control-the-covid-19-pandemic-156614)
The revival of the leisure suit proves something that Australian luxury consumers have known intuitively for many years: that fashions epicentreis slowly shifting from Europe and expanding elsewhere. (https://www.dmarge.com/2021/03/leisure-safari-suit-mens-fashion-trend.html)
Celebrity chef Karen Martini always wanted to open a restaurant in Melbournes CBD, but she never expected it to happen the way it did. Her new all-day diner, Hero, is the culinary epicentreof the recently reopened Australian Centre for the Moving Image (ACMI) in Federation Square. (https://www.broadsheet.com.au/melbourne/food-and-drink/article/now-open-acmi-karen-martini-every-inch-hero-her-elegantly-understated-new-cbd-restaurant)
How would you characterise the senseof the term epicentre in examples (i)-(iii) above? (1 mark. Write up to 20 words. Note: assume that (i)-(iii) all involve the same sense as each other; i.e. you dont need to come up with a separate sense for each example.)
Now consider the origin of the term epicentre(source: https://www.etymonline.com/word/epicenter):
1885 in seismology, “point on the earth’s surface directly above the center or focus of an earthquake,” from Modern Latin epicentrum(1879 in geological use)
Do you think the use of epicentrein examples like (i)-(iii) above is incorrect? Why or why not?
Considering both the original use of epicentreand the newer usages (e.g. in examples (i)-(iii)), do you think the different uses involve polysemyor homonymyor neither? Justify your answer.
Do you think the term epicentreis ambiguousor vague or neither? Justify your answer. words.)
3. Bread
In 2020, an Irish court ruled that the sugar content of the bread in Subway sandwiches exceeds the stipulated limit and should instead be taxed as confectionary rather than as bread. Read the following news piece from The Guardian(also included in the appendix to this assignment):https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/01/irish-court-rules-subway-bread-is-not-bread

How does the sense and/or denotation of the term breaddiffer according to Irish law and according to Subway? Which do you think is closer to ordinary usage? (Note that the article does not provide clear definitions from each side, but this question is just asking about the key difference in sense according to the two sides. 3 marks.
Consider the following attempts at defining the word For each, identify what type(s) of definition it is. Choose from the following types: definition by ostension, definition by synonymy, definition bycontext, definition bytypical exemplar, definition bygenus and differentia. Also, what problems can you identify with each definition?
A baked good
A staple food made by mixing flour and water or other liquid (often with yeast or other leavening agent) to form a dough which is then cooked, usually by baking. (from the Oxford English Dictionary)
Something people often have to eat; you can toast it or use it to make sandwiches.
4. Deixis and anaphora
Consider the following 7 underlined expressions all (Pro)Nouns or Noun Phrases from the article discussed in Question 3 above or from an accompanying ad as they occur in their context within the text. For each, identify the referent(if any) and state whether the act of reference is:
Deictic? (if so, what kind of deixis?)
Anaphoric? (if so, what is theantecedent?)
Neither? (say why you dont think it is either deixis or anaphora)
Those wrestling with the great culinary-philosophical dilemmas of our time are jaffa cakes actually cakes or just up-themselves biscuits, is putting chorizo in paella really an act of gastronomic terrorism, and what kind of monster doesnt love Marmite? can give thanks to the Irish supreme court.
Earlier this week, itbrought clarity to an important, if less bitterly contested, debate.
In a judgment published on Tuesday, the court ruled that the bread served at Subway, the US chain that hawks giant sandwiches in 110 countries and territories, could not in fact be defined as bread because of its high sugar content.
The ruling is not the first slice of controversy for the brand. In 2014, Subway decided to start removing the flour whitening agent azodicarbonamide from its baked goods after a petition circulated online. The ingredientis commonly used in the manufacture of yoga mats and carpet underlay and has been banned by the European Union and Australia from use in food products.
Therecan also sometimes be a thin but important line between food and aphrodisiacs.
Welcome to the Guardian. We hope youre finding our reporting valuable. Today, wed like to take a moment to introduce ourselves a bit better.
Our global readership powers Guardian journalism, and were proud to say that we now have supporters in 180 countries.

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